■Analysis in Tokyo
■Recovery of “human flow and socioeconomic activities to pre-pandemic levels” taking 6 months from January 2022
■“Behavioral change” and the “functioning of factors not considered in the model” are assumed to start when the critical care bed utilization rate (national standard) exceeds 32.5%
■Basic reproduction number of the Delta variant: 3.75,
■Basic reproduction number of the Omicron variant: 4.5 (=3.75 x 1.2)
■Vaccination of the third dose
■February: 700,000 units/week, March: 1 million units/week, pace gradually decreases from April. Final booster vaccination rate = 70% of total population (= 90% of people who are vaccinated the second dose)
■See the next page
■Effectiveness of the third dose for preventing infection: 85%
■Seasonality: Using the Sine function, the maximum value of the contact rate parameter in winter is set to 1.2 times the minimum value in summer.
■Mortality rate, serious illness rate (metropolitan and national standards), and hospitalization rate during the sixth wave (relative to the fifth wave)
■Considered 3 cases: A: 5%, B: 20%, C: 40%
■Refer to “Rates of Serious Illness and Mortality during the Sixth Wave.” Composition effects and decline in effectiveness of vaccination are considered.
■Considered 3 spread scenarios (using AR1 shocks against the contact rate parameter)
■5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 newly infected patients per day at the end of January
■For further details on the parameters, please refer to “(December 24) Omicron variant” and “Key parameters” found in the latter part of this document.
■All scenarios require “behavioral change” and/or “functioning of factors not considered in the model” to reduce infections.
■Depends on the assumption that the efficacy of infection prevention with 2 vaccinations is half for the Omicron variant relative to the Delta variant.
■As for factors not taken into account in the model, see “(October 25) Factors behind the infection decrease in Tokyo: Quantitative Analysis.”
■People's risk aversion, behavioral limitations, and the power-law functioning due to a strain on the medical system (scale-free and small-world structure), as well as the functioning of various heterogeneities that are not taken into account in standard models
■If the serious illness rate and hospitalization rate are sufficiently low, there is a possibility that the critical care bed utilization rate (metropolitan and national standards) will remain below 80% even if the number of newly infected patients per day remains above 10,000 for about a month.
■Although sufficiently decreasing the serious illness rate and hospitalization rate, there may be a situation where critical care beds (national standard) is not enough if the spread of infection is rapid and “behavioral changes and the functioning of factors not considered in the model” are implemented after the critical care bed utilization rate (national standard) exceeds 32.5%.
■The possibility of a shortage of critical care beds (metropolitan standard) is relatively low (compared to the possibility of a shortage of critical care beds (national standard)).
■Note that the overall hospital bed utilization rate is highly dependent on the “admission criteria.”
■If the serious illness rate and hospitalization rate are not sufficiently low, there is a possibility that critical care beds (national standard) are not sufficient if the number of newly infected patients per day remain at about 10,000 for 1 to 2 weeks,